Importance of Project Appraisal with Practical Examples


Table of Contents
  1. a) Define the term ‘Project’ and identify the key attributes of a Project (Give a suitable example in your answer) 3
  2. b) Describe the different phases of the Project Life cycle. 5
  3. Implementation (Execution) Phase. 7
  4. Closing Phase. 7
Example: Project Phases on a Large Multinational Project


A) Define the term ‘Project’ and identify the key attributes of a Project (Give a suitable example in your answer)

A project is an extraordinary chance for firms and people to accomplish their business and non-business goals all the more proficiently by executing change. Projects enable the business to roll out wanted improvements in a planned way and with a lessened likelihood of disappointment.

Projects vary from different kinds of work (e.g. process, assignment, system). A project is characterized as a particular, limited movement that creates a perceptible and quantifiable outcome under certain predefined conditions (Davidson Frame, 2014).

It is an effort to execute wanted change to a situation in a controlled manner. By utilizing projects, a business can design and perform its acts, for instance: assemble a carport, start a marketing campaign, build up a webpage, arrange a party, take some time off, graduate a college with distinction, or whatever else has to be done.

A Project is a transitory, exceptional, and dynamic effort or try made to deliver some sort of a substantial or immaterial outcome (an extraordinary item, service, competitive advantage, and so on.). It generally incorporates a progression of interrelated assignments that are ready for implementation for a fixed timeframe and inside specific necessities and confinements, for example, expenditure, quality, execution, etc.

The key attributes of a project are:

  1. A single definable aim, end-item, or effect: This is generally determined as per expenditure, calendar, and execution necessities (Randolph, 2014).
  2. Each project is exceptional: It needs exclusively performed, something that was not done earlier. Indeed, even in what is regularly called "schedule" projects, for example, constructing a home, the factors, public services, territory, zoning regulations, labor, and local services make each project extraordinary. A project is a once-off action, which is never to reoccur the very same way. A project plans to create some deliverable(s) which can be an item, facility, or any other outcome. The deliverables should deal with an issue or require assessment before the project begins.
  3. Projects are transitory activities: A project is an impromptu association of staff, materials, tools, and facilities that are arranged to achieve an objective. This objective is within a particular time. Once the objective is accomplished, the association made for it is disbanded or once in a while, it is reconstituted to start taking a shot at another objective (project). This key trademark implies that each project has a limited beginning and a limited end. The beginning is when the project starts and its idea is produced. The end is achieved as each goal of the project has been met (or neglected if the project can't be finished – then it's ended)
  4. Projects cross organizational lines: Projects constantly cross the normal hierarchical lines and structures in a business. They do this because the project has to obtain the abilities and the skills of various jobs and divisions inside the business some of the time even from different firms. The complication of modern technology usually causes extra project troubles, as they make task interdependency that may present fresh and exceptional issues.
  5. Projects entail unfamiliarity: As a project varies from what was done earlier, it includes unfamiliarity too (Tinnirello, 2012). Furthermore, a project includes innovation and, for the firm that performs the project, huge components of insecurity and risk also come up.
  6. The business generally has something at risk when carrying out a project: The exclusive project “activity” might need extraordinary inspection or effort as failure would put the firm or its aims at risk.
  7. A project is the procedure of working to accomplish an objective: Amid the procedure, projects go through a few particular phases, which frame and are known as the project life cycle. The undertakings, individuals, firms, and different resources will modify as the project moves starting with one phase and then onto the next. The business structure and the resource use work with each succeeding phase; pinnacle; and afterward decay as the project nears fulfillment. With a project moving ahead, consistent examination and change end up accessible, and this permits delivering more exact and exhaustive plans. This key trademark implies that the progressive emphases of planning forms bring about growing more powerful ways to create and move ahead with projects.

B) Describe the different phases of the Project Life cycle

The Project Life Cycle is the model procedure by which teams attain project accomplishment. Although much is not known in reputation, the Professional Services Life Cycle is there as the model project life cycle does not suit everybody’s requirements. The benchmark project life cycle is useful for a few project managers; however professional services require a further tough procedure. In professional services, contrasting other businesses, their product is their individuals. Specifically, professional services provide their know-how to other firms instead of profit. Because of the steady participation of clients, professional services entail an exclusive project life cycle that includes a frequent reaction loop to ensure project accomplishment.

The Project Life Cycle mentions the four-step procedure that is followed by almost every project manager when progressing from phases of project achievement. This is the standard project life cycle that most of the individuals are accustomed to. The Project Life Cycle offers a structure for managing any kind of project in a firm. Leaders in project management have researched to decide the best procedure to operate projects. It has been stated that pursuing a project life cycle is significant for any services firm.

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Initiation Phase

In the first of these phases, the initiation phase, the project target or need is recognized; this can be a trade problem or opportunity. A suitable reaction to the need is recorded in a business case with suggested alternatives. A feasibility study is led to research whether every choice deals with the project objective and a last prescribed arrangement is chosen. Issues of practicality ("Would we be able to do the project?") and support ("Should we do the project?") are handled (Lock & Scott, 2013).

Once the prescribed arrangement is affirmed, a project is started to deliver the chosen arrangement, and a project manager is selected. The real expectations and the involved workers are recognized, and the project team is created. Then authorization is needed by the project manager to shift to the comprehensive planning stage. In this project the questions the project manager has to ask himself:

  • What is the difficulty?
  • Will the progress of a project resolve that difficulty?
  • What are the particular objectives of the project?
  • Are there adequate resources to build and support the project?
The initiation phase classically involves:
  • Formation of the statement of work (SOW).
  • Laying down the business case.
  • Making of a business agreement.

Planning Phase

The subsequent stage i.e. the planning phase, is the place where the project arrangement is additionally created thoroughly and the steps important to fulfill the project's goal are arranged. In this stage, the group distinguishes the majority of the work to be finished. The project's assignments and resource necessities are recognized, alongside the procedure for delivering those (Garton & McCulloch, 2012). This is additionally known as "scope management". A project design is made delineating the acts, errands, conditions, and time limits. The project manager facilitates the making of a project budget by giving cost estimations for the staff, tools, and materials expenses. The budget is utilized to keep track of and control cost consumptions amid project implementation.

After the project team has recognized the tasks, arranged the timetable, and made cost estimations, the three key parts of the planning procedure are finished. This is a great time to recognize and manage anything that may represent a danger to the fruitful finishing of the project. This is known as risk management. In risk management, "high-risk" potential issues are recognized alongside the activity that will be gone up against every high-danger potential issue, either to decrease the likelihood that the issue will happen or to diminish the effect on the project on the off chance that it occurs. This is likewise a decent time to recognize all project partners and build up a correspondence design depicting the data required and the conveyance technique to be utilized to keep the stakeholders aware.

The questions to be considered during Planning:
  • What is the aim of the project, its vision, or its mission?
  • Are there assessable goals or success principles?
  • Is there a high-level explanation of the project, wants, and risks?
  • Is there adequate scheduling and budgeting for the high-level milestones?

Implementation (Execution) Phase

In the third phase, the implementation takes place and the project design is applied. It is essential to keep up control and convey as required while implementation. The progress is ceaselessly checked and fitting alterations are made and recorded as variations from the plan. In a project, a project manager invests the greater part of the energy in this phase. Here, individuals are completing the assignments, and details of progress are being recorded through normal team meetings. The project manager utilizes these records to keep control throughout the project by contrasting the advance reports and the project intent to quantify the execution of the project exercises and make restorative moves as required. The primary game plan ought to dependably be to bring the project back on course (i.e., to return it to the first arrangement) (Jowah, 2015). In case, it can't occur, the team should document variations from the plan and record and inform about the adjustments to the plan. All through this stage, project supporters and other key partners ought to be made aware of the project's status as per the pre-decided frequency and format of communication. The plan has to be refreshed and informed all the time.

Status reports ought to constantly lay stress on the expected endpoint for the cost, calendar, and type of deliverables. Each project deliverable created ought to be checked for quality and estimated against the approval criteria. When the deliverables have been created and the client has approved the ultimate arrangement, the project is set to close.

Closing Phase

At the time of final closing, the stress is on discharging the ultimate deliverables to the client, giving over project documents to the company, ending provider contracts, discharging project assets, and imparting the conclusion of the project to all partners. The final step is to conduct the lessons-learned reviews to inspect what went well and what did not. Through this kind of assessment, the insight of experience is exchanged back to the project firm, which will help future project teams.

Example: Project Phases on a Large Multinational Project

A U.K.-based construction organization got a contract to design and create the initial copper mine in a chosen area. There was no current framework for either the mining business or expansive development projects in this region. During the initiation phase of the project, the project director concentrated on characterizing and finding a project administration group with the learning, aptitudes, and experience to deal with an extensive complex project in a remote territory of the globe. The project group set up three workplaces. At the first site, a substantial mining development project framework existed. The other was to build up connections and UK ability, and the third was in the heart of London.

With workplaces set up, the project start-up group started creating a methodology for completing work, gaining suitable permissions, and creating links with the key partners.

During the planning phase, the project team built up an incorporated project plan that organized the exercises of the outline, obtainment, and development groups. The project controls group likewise built up a detailed budget that empowered the project group to track project uses against the normal costs. The project designing group outlined and created itemized illustrations for use by the procurement group. The procurement group utilized the illustrations to start placing orders for hardware and materials for the development group; create work projections; refine the development timetable; and set up the development site. Even though planning is a ceaseless procedure on a project, the planning phase concentrates on creating adequate information to permit different parts of the project team to manage their work and permit the project management team to settle on prioritized choices.

The implementation phase involves the work done to meet the necessities of the extent of work and satisfy the sanction. During the implementation stage, the project group achieved the work laid in the plan and made modifications when the project factors transformed. Tools and materials were delivered to the work location, staff were employed training was provided, a construction site was made, and all the construction exercises, from the landing of the principal dozer to the putting up of the last electric switch, were done.

The closeout phase incorporated turning over the recently constructed plant to the tasks group of the customer. A listing of a couple of construction tasks was produced, which had to be completed still, and those that were already done. The bookkeeping was done with reconciliations and closing of accounts. All the reports were documented and distributed, and the project manager began with another project. Choose 'Assignment Help' for more.


Davidson Frame, J. (2014). Reconstructing Project Management. Project Management Journal, 45(1), e2-e2.

Garton, C., & McCulloch, E. (2012). Fundamentals of technology project management. Boise: MC Press Online.

Jowah, L. (2015). Project Management Tools and Techniques for Effective Project Execution.

Journal Of Business And Economics, 6(10), 1762-1774.

Lock, D., & Scott, L. (2013). Gower handbook of people in project management. Farnham, Surrey: Gower Publishing.

Randolph, S. (2014). Maximizing Project Value: A Project Manager's Guide. Project Management Journal, 45(2), e2-e2.

Tinnirello, P. (2012). Project management. Boca Raton: Auerbach.

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