NURS1003: Assessment Tasks-Report for International Council of Nurses

Guidelines for Assessment 2 Report (40%)
A couple of bits of advice to start….
This relates to all assessments in NURS1003: Assessment tasks are easier to do if you are interested in what you are learning. It helps if you:
• Attend classes.
• Ask questions.
• Talk to your classmates about things you are learning.
• Keep up with the readings that your lecturers and tutors set.
• Follow the subject’s issues in the media and professional journals.
• Think about what you are learning; about what has happened, about what might happen. Consider different scenarios.
• Ask yourself questions; how does this subject relate to other things you know and are learning and how does this relate to the patient and the clinical setting.
• Try to find the answers through your reading and in your classes but also from reading more broadly on the subject.
So it is important that we assess you because it does a number of things:
• It directs your learning.
• It measures results. An academic degree is proof of a high level of knowledge and skill. Your marks show you and me whether you have achieved the required level.
• It defines and protects standards. Universities have regulations outlining how much work students need to do and our assessments comply with these standards.
So…what does the question ask?
Format: Written report
Aim: To highlight the critical role of nurses in managing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Australia to the International Council of Nurses (ICN).
Submission: 15th April, 2019 at 09.00 hours through Turnitin
Length: 2000 words maximum
“It’s time to close the book on infectious diseases, declare the war against pestilence won, and shift national resources to such chronic problems as cancer and heart disease”.
This statement is attributed to the US Surgeon General at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers (1967) at a time in Public Health when infectious diseases appeared to be declining.
Today antimicrobial resistance is considered a serious global public health concern:
“Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as a key security threat to global health. By 2050 – if effective interventions against antimicrobial resistance are not made – 10 million deaths and an economic loss of US$ 100 trillion may occur annually as the result of such resistance” (WHO, 2017).
You are required to write a report for the International Council of Nurses (ICN).
This report will include three key areas:
I. Outline the emergence of AMR from both a global and national perspective
II. Choose ONE of the following diseases and discuss its epidemiology
Tuberculosis (TB) OR Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
III. Using the Socio-Ecological Model as a framework, critically discuss how this model could be used in the management of AMR with specific focus on the nursing role in effective communication strategies and health literacy.
Note: The final submission date for this report is Monday, 15th April 2019 at 9am.
Rubric and Assessment Guidelines
Students are encouraged to review these criteria while developing their work, when reviewing the final submission and when considering feedback.
A few general tips…..
How much should I read?
For a 2000 word report you need at least 15 references, many students have a lot more. See the following for further assistance. You can include relevant readings from the unit of study core readings. While papers and journals need to be up to date and relevant, there are often articles of critical importance that are dated from many years ago and it is acceptable to use these to provide evidence and highlight a key point.
Presentation of the health report:
This report should combine descriptive, explanatory, and persuasive writing and be supported by evidence from academic sources. Graphics may be included. See
Please refer to the library resources provided, plan early and see your tutor if you are having any difficulties.
Presentation and Resources
• Does the text demonstrate use of sufficient and appropriate evidence? E.g. ABS; AIHW; Government sources, academic peer reviewed journals; books; library readings, primary research?
• Are resources acknowledged appropriately and systematically, using APA 6th referencing
• Formatting as per report (see report format)
• Correct formatting for abbreviations?
• In alphabetical order and on new page.
• Sticks to word count – 2000 words only
• Page numbers and SID as header/footer. No names as per UOS outline
Report Template:
Structure and Organisation
The following provides the specific guidelines for writing this health report in NURS1003 for Assessment 2:
Title page
Article outline (Abstract): no more than 200 words (this must include evidence of your database search, key search terms and search strategies).
Key Points (the three key areas detailed above)
Appendices/Graphics (if applicable)
Make sure:
• Each part of the health report is clearly identified and addresses the specific requirements of the assessment.
• Make sure the paragraphs are clear and move logically from one to another.
• Does each paragraph start broadly and move towards specific detail?
• Does the paragraph build the argument-synthesise the evidence and persuade the reader? What does synthesising the evidence mean?
Go to:
• Overall clarity: is this article well-presented, logical and clear?
Points to consider
• Research your topic: Use academic sources (peer-reviewed and scholarly articles). Conduct a literature search using relevant databases (see week 2 librarian
information). Review recent publications; review recent news articles and note sources of information. Consider the reliability of your sources Analyse the evidence.
• Consider recent trends in this debate: historical overview of antimicrobial resistance; epidemiology facts, such as incidence and prevalence of your chosen disease; morbidity and mortality
• Introduction/Conclusion: How will you attract attention to your report consider a strong introductory statement. Conclusion should summarise your key points and end with a strong statement
• Ensure your writing is clear and succinct. Note the word count is 2000.
Design and Innovation
Appropriate use of academic language and graphics to highlight the issue
• Do not overuse graphics. Make sure that you explain your graph/etc and that it adds value to your report.
• Go to
Editing and proof reading:
Please make sure you have edited your report and that you follow all academic conventions (see academic writing). In addition, check for spelling and grammatical errors. You will lose valuable marks for poor presentation (see rubric). Go to:
This should cover only the outline of your report (not details), a brief description of the content, and the general conclusions you have reached. An abstract is usually very short; if the length is not specified, then it is usual to aim at 5 to 10% of the essay itself. The abstract is placed before the text of your assignment. Most journals will include abstracts of their articles – you can use these as examples to prepare your own abstract. A well-written abstract answers the following five questions, almost always in this order: • Why is the topic being discussed? • What are the key points• what conclusions were drawn?
The abstract should be able to stand alone and summarise what the article is about-it needs to be as good as you can make it as it is the first thing the reader will come to and should be the last thing you write.
Hire Assignment Writers
See example below: This abstract effectively summarise the key points the author is making; it does this succinctly and with clarity. It clearly articulates the role of vaccine; reported data and the target at risk group. From this I understand what the article is going to discuss.
Importantly, it also identifies the databases used and key search terms used –approximately 150-200 words is perfect for this size of essay. The example below was for a shorter report and the word count reflects this.
Abstract example:
This health article highlights the important role that the human papillomavirus vaccine plays in preventing cervical cancer. The most recently reported rising national immunisation rates for girls aged 15 and over are discussed. Indigenous Australian women are identified as a group with a higher risk of death from cervical cancer. Evidence in the form of academic literature was sourced by conducting keyword searches for the phrases “HPV epidemiology,” “HPV and cervical cancer,” “HPV Australia,” and “HPV Vaccine.” Databases searched (accessed via the University of Sydney library website) included the University of Sydney Library (using the CrossSearch functionality), ClinicalKey Nursing, and the British Medical Journal Best Practice database.
Your introduction is your chance to create a good first impression on your reader and tell them what your paper is going to be about. It’s a broad statement of your topic and your argument. It might not be the first thing you write. It may be easier to write your introduction after your first draft when you know and understand your topic better. Your introduction is usually between 10-20% the length of your paper. An introduction contains three elements – a thesis statement, scope, structure.
• Thesis statement: A thesis statement is the specific claim you make in response to the assignment question. Your essay and everything in it supports this claim. A strong thesis answers the question with a summary of your position and argument. It states the most important points. It summarises the organisation of your paper. The thesis statement is
usually at the end of the introduction, but it can sometimes be placed at the beginning. Don’t put it in the middle of the introduction.
• Scope makes a general statement about the issue, topic or area under discussion.
• Structure sets out the main structure of the assignment - be brief but include all your main ideas
Introduction example (see below)- this was clear- stated the global problem of vaccination then related this to a national context; it then identified risk factors related to vaccine hesitancy and summarised the challenge this presents to us as health care professionals.
This introduction should then conclude with a summary statement saying ‘ This article will address the …..’
so in effect it tells the reader how the article will proceed and should not really need a heading- it should be clear where the introduction starts and where it finishes.
Introduction example:
– Having prevented many millions of deaths on a global scale, antibiotics are an undeniably powerful tool with a long history of success since their introduction to Australia and world-wide (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, 2014; National Centre for Immunisation Research & Surveillance, 2015). Nonetheless, the decision to vaccinate children against existing vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) appears to be an increasingly difficult one, with estimates that 14 per cent of parents are objecting to or postponing their child’s vaccinations in certain national regions (Berry et al., 2017; Omer, Salmon, Orenstein, DeHart, & Halsey, 2009). Why parents are objecting is lesser understood; possible explanations may be a combination of social, economic and environmental factors, as it has shown to be for some populations at high-risk of HPV, such as young Indigenous women (Whop et al., 2016). While a majority of 69 per cent are concerned with the safety of vaccines – a worrying thought to be portrayed somewhat destructively in the media (Leask, Jackson, Trevena, McCaffery, & Brotherton, 2009; Omer et al., 2009). The vaccination debate, then, presents a modern-day challenge for health care professionals, parents and children alike with the prevention of several diseases relying on
effective communication, education and participation in vaccination programmes (Omer et al., 2009).
Part 1. Outline the emergence of AMR from both a global and national perspective
• This is a broad outline of the reasons for AMR emergence
• Include both the historical and contemporary perspective of AMR
• Include here reference to key global and national reports, for example from the World Health Organisation (WHO); perhaps how this may hinder the progress in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals; discuss progress made in managing resistance. Consider how Australia may be tacking the issue- what policies are in place; what might the impact of this be in the clinical areas, economic impact etc
Part 2. Choose ONE of the following diseases and discuss its epidemiology
Tuberculosis (TB) OR Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infection
• Choose one - there is ample resources on each so spend some time reviewing the two before making a final decision.
• How important is this disease globally and nationally; what is the extent of its resistance?
• What epidemiology measures are you looking for here? What sources of data might you use? Consider the spread and distribution- Incidence and prevalence? What else?
• The lecture from Professor Ramon Shaban in week 4 will be helpful in identifying specific features relevant to your report.
Part 3. Using the Socio-Ecological Model as a framework, critically discuss how this model could be used in the management of AMR with specific focus on the nursing role in effective communication strategies and health literacy.
• Identify the key components of the Socio-Ecological Model (SEM)
• Using this framework as a guide discuss the management of AMR
• Where do you see the nursing role in addressing these concerns?
• Nursing contact presents opportunities for establishing relationships-communication issues?
• Health literacy of clients- what might be the effects of poor health literacy on AMR?
The third section will be longer than the first two so allocate your word count appropriately.
• Summarises main points of essay, and does not reintroduce new points
• Provides a conclusion of main points. Has it ended with a strong statement?
• Go to:
Please use the APA 6th referencing guide- make sure you have this handy when you are drafting your essay, when summarising notes from journals, and when you prepare your final drafts. It is important to get this right early in your academic degree because it is a skill that you will need throughout. Please note that marks are deducted when referencing is not correct.
For a topic like this, you are expected to read widely. The minimum number of references for a 2000 word report is 15 references. Please remember that this is an academic report and therefore requires appropriate primary research from academic peer reviewed journals.
So, ask yourself:
• Does the text demonstrate use of sufficient and appropriate evidence? E.g. ABS; AIHW; Government sources, academic peer reviewed journals; books; library readings, primary research?
• Are resources acknowledged appropriately and systematically, using APA 6th referencing
• Formatting as per guidelines.
• Do I have the correct formatting for abbreviations? For example, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW).
• Are references in alphabetical order and on new page?
• Remember to complete the mandatory modules on Academic Honesty sourced through NURS1002 (Health Assessment).
• Keep good notes on the source material you use when preparing your assignments. If you photocopy the source material, ensure you also photocopy its bibliographic details (i.e., author, year of publication, title, etc.) You require this information for your reference list. In the case of books, this information can usually be found at the front of the book, after the title page and before the table of contents. In the case of journal articles, this information can usually be found on the first page of the article. Different reference types require different bibliographic details to be recorded in the reference list
• Do not overuse direct quotations. It is always better to paraphrase and use general statements to support your arguments. Paraphrasing demonstrates your understanding of the material. Remember, if you paraphrase the words or ideas of another, you must reference the source. If you do use the words of another author, put the borrowed words in quotation marks and treat them as a quotation (see APA guide).
• It is not acceptable to cut and paste sections of material from the Internet or other sources and place them in your essay (with or without a reference) without any comment or connecting material written by you. This shows a lack of intellectual input on your part and will earn a poor mark because there is no academic merit in the essay.
Language and the way it is used are major vehicles for the expression of prejudice and discrimination. It not only reflects and maintains the discriminatory values and practices of our society but can also be inaccurate and perpetuate false assumptions and stereotypes. Non-discriminatory language aims to treat all people equitably and fairly, usually by avoiding certain expressions and selecting others already existing in the language. This is particularly so when writing about vulnerable population groups in the context of health and illness.
And Finally…
• Present the text (main body) of your assignment on numbered pages beginning with
1 and continuing, in sequence, to the last page.
• Type your work using double spacing between lines.
• Ensure that the font size and style you choose can be easily read. It is recommended that you use Arial as your font, with the minimum font size 10 point.
• Leave a margin of at least 3 cm on the left-hand side of the page.
• Stay within the specified word limit which is 2000 words. There will be a penalty for having too many or too few words.
• The word count does not include the reference list.
Appendix Examples
In 2015, the notification of influenza reached a highest point in the ending week 21 August, in South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland, while it peaked one week earlier in Western Australia. For Northern Territory it peaked four weeks later while in Tasmania, is one week later (Australian Government Department of Health [DOH], 2015). Children aged less than 15 years and adults aged over 85 have the highest incidence, the number of hospitalisations reported to be similar compared to previous year (18357 hospitalisations in total). The number of death caused by influenza in average is 3500, mostly in older age groups (Influenza Specialist Group [ISG], 2014). The impact of influenza to Australian is sometime tragic, historically, in the early 1900s Spanish influenza brought 15000 deaths and 5 million infections within one year (ISG, 2014). The major outbreak of influenza H1N1 also had a large impact on Australian, it caused 37537 confirmed cases and 191 deaths in total (DOH, 2009). In a recent study found that in Australia, influenza costs $85 million annually for the Australian health care system to treat infected patients (ISG, 2014). Therefore, influenza is life-threatening and costs large amount of funds to both patients and government in order to fully eliminate the disease.
Student (Low Pass) 2016, different assessment
In Australia, the disease has been cause for increased morbidity and mortality amongst the community. In the decade spanning from 1986-1995, prior to the introduction of a nationwide measles control and immunisation campaign (involving primary school vaccinations and MMR follow-up reminders sent to parents), 32 deaths were recorded. Additionally, the early 1990’s observed a notification of between 25-30 infected persons per 100,000 of the Australian population (Chiew, et al., 2015). Owing to its highly transmissible nature, the infective potential of measles is high amongst a vulnerable community. Historically, measles has most commonly affected infant and adolescent populations in Australia. Susceptible infants result from low and/or waning maternal antibodies that do not grant sufficient protection against the disease within the early (immunocompromised) stages of life, preceding the recommended vaccination age of 12 months. In 2011, a notification rate of 3.5-4.0 per 100,000 was recorded for the <12 month age group. (Chiew, et al., 2015) This trend serves as a powerful reminder of the importance of immunisation in order to provide herd immunity and protection for individuals unable to do so themselves. In adolescents, waning immunity is cause for some cases (Wood, Heywooda, Menzies, McIntyre, & MacIntyre, 2015), whereas failure to complete a full immunisation program as a child without follow up (resulting in no or partial protection) is a more common justification (Gilbert, 2012). A 2012 measles outbreak in south-western Sydney recorded a peak in cases between 10-19
years of age, flagging a possible immunity gap amongst this group. From the total infected population >1 year old, 56.5% were unvaccinated or ‘unsure’ of their vaccination status (Conaty, 2013). Research supports that an overall immunisation level of >90% is necessary to maintain herd immunity within a population and prevent major outbreak (Moss & Griffin, 2014). Hence, recent outbreaks highlight emerging patterns amongst Australian communities of susceptible population groups and inform possible intervention strategies (Durrheim, Crowcroft, & Strebel, 2014).
Student (Distinction) 2016 again different assessment Introduction (this is part of an introduction) Comment: This clearly states that issue and its urgency, provides a brief summary of the reasons for increasing resistance, while including the role of nursing as critical. Introducing the elements of social and biological early on sets the scene for using the Socioecological model. I would expect the introduction to expand more- it should be roughly 200 words (10% of 2000). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognised as a major health concern today, both in Australia and globally. While there has been increasing recognition of the health impact of AMR, its current widespread distribution reflects a level of complacency seen internationally following the 20th century period of rapid medical advances. The rapid growth of urbanization; changing farming practices and consumer demand has not been met with the same advances in antibiotic regulation and manufacture. For many decades, the effectiveness, availability and low cost of antimicrobial drugs has led to their significant overuse. The ready availability of antimicrobial drugs has led to overuse, causing a significant and measurable impact on health globally and in Australia. It is not only a biological health issue but a social issue meaning that addressing this issue will require action at a global, national and local level. The nursing profession is considered critical to this process.
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