The subject of Financial Markets and Instruments Assignment is related to commercial contracts held amongst the parties. They can be generated, marketed, modified, and finalized. The transaction may be in cash, proof of ownership interest, or a contractual agreement to receive or deliver like Equity, shares, and many more.
The criteria of financial instruments may be classified as “asset class” based on whether they are equity-based or debt-based, reflecting a loan the investor has made to the issuing entity. In case of debt, it can be further classified into short-term less than one year or long-term. Transactions related to Foreign exchange instruments are not debt base or equity-based and of their class.
The market of Finance may be classified into the following rating:
- Money Market
- Capital Market
- Primary Market
- Secondary Market
Main functions of the financial market are:
- Determination of Price
- Mobilization of Funds
- Sharing of Risk
- Convenient Access
- Minimum Transaction Costs
- Capital Formation
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After the study of the financial lesson, students should:
- Explain the Investment Policy as Liberalized Foreign origin
- Ability to Explain the Institutions involved in International Financial Markets
- Ability to Know the Major Players in Financial Markets
- Ability to Explain the Existing Types of Financial Market Structures
In 1990, globalization opened international trade, due to the activities related to trade liberalization. This made to result as a driving force of economic advantage and development. Indian economy faced an intensive disbalance of payment-related crisis. Reserves of foreign exchange dropped very fast within less than three weeks of the need for imports. To overcome this condition, and import boosting exports, the Government took specific mitigative steps for deleting restrictive policy instruments in the reforms trade, tariff, and rate of exchange policies.
Study of imports and exports reported the following:
Withdraw of and vigorous restrictions on imports and exports, a significant number of items were relocated outside the subject of import licensing, lower tariff rates, devaluation of rupee for Exim scrip’s partial or full convertibility of rupee and many more.
New Global Economic competition
Post Second World War, the IMF par value system was imposed. As a result, we became part of the new world economy. Many Countries made control to exchange policy, and various categories of trade restrictions came in to effect.
WTO, The World Trade Organization, has introduced all over the world a universally free trade system. The importance of the World Bank was diminished effectively. Private capital importing companies now rule society. Even the power of the IMF has been reduced, and many countries imposed currency conversion systems. A large-scale dependence on incentive availability dominates capital flows.
WTO imposed a system in which domestic subsidies were removed and deleted. Tariff barriers no more exist, and the method of the non-tariff obstacles was continued. Global industries are now significantly organized in terms of multinational companies, whose operations affected many countries. Global demonstration effects are working remarkably to determine the lifestyles of all states of the world.
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Liberalized Foreign Investment Policy
Indian government-initiated Programme of macroeconomic during June 1991, supported by IMF as well as World Bank. The program also announced a new industrial policy on July 24, 1991, that initiated full liberalization and increased the process of integration with the global economy. FIPB, Foreign Investment Promotion Board, WAS authorized to provide a single-window for all types of clearances. India gained the authority to become an authorized signatory for the protection of foreign investments.
Underlying Meaning of International Financial Markets:
It is such a market of Finance, where financial assets are traded as well as distributed. In addition to making exchanges of earlier issues, financial assets, the new financial markets system started borrowing and lending operations, using the facility of the sale by new items financial assets. A financial institution is such an institute with the principal source of profits gained using financial asset transactions. Examples of similar financial institutions include discount broker, banking sectors, insurance group of companies, and multi-function financial institutions.
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